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Contract number
Time span of the project
Invited researcher
2021 - 2022 Salmi Tapio Olavi

As of 01.11.2022

Number of staff members
scientific publications
Objects of intellectual property
General information

Catalysis is widely used in environmentally friendly resource-efficient technologies, which leads to an increase of the efficiency and the depth of processing of hydrocarbon raw materials. The properties of catalysts are determined by the methods they were produced. The used methods do not meet the requirements of modern technologies due to low energy efficiency of production, low activity, the selectivity and the stability of catalysts.

The project is aimed at the development of energy-efficient microwave processes of the synthesis of various nano-catalysts with deposited nano-particles of metals and in situ activation of catalytic processes, including deep processing of hydrocarbon and renewable raw materials.

Name of the project: Use of microwave radiation for the synthesis of catalysis and in situ activation of catalytic processes

Goals and objectives

The project will solve the following tasks:

  • The development of energy efficient, selective fast methods of production (decomposition of precursors, soft recovery, non-thermal effects) of heterogeneous catalysts with deposited nano-particles of metals and oxides using microwave radiation.
  • The comparison of the properties and the structure of nano-catalysts processed in microwave fields with the properties of materials that were subjected to thermal activation.
  • The research of the structure of heterogeneous catalysts using physico-chemical methods.
  • The assessment of the activity of catalysts processed using various methods in a wide range of processes.

Of particular interest are non-thermal effects of a significant increase of the temperature and a strengthening of the activity in hydration reactions that were detected in the setting of microwave impact in the presence of hydrogen and is explained by dissociative adsorption of hydrogen.

The practical value of the study

Scientific results:

  • We have developed selective, high-performance and energy efficient methods of preparing (decomposing precursors, soft reconstruction, nonthermal effects) of heterogeneous catalysts with deposited nanoparticles of metals and oxides with the use of microwave activation. We have compared the properties and the structure of nanomaterials and catalysts treated in microwave fields with the properties of catalyst that have undergone traditional thermal activation. We have determined the influence of physical impact methods (microwave radiation) on the structure of heterogeneous catalysts with the use of methods of chemical and physical analysis (IR spectroscopy, XPS, XRD, SEM, TEM, TPR).
  • Our researchers have studied catalysts based on non-noble metals (nanoparticles, core-shell systems, decoration of Fe, Cu, Ni, Co particles) containing minimum amounts of noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, Rh, Ir, Ru). Microwave activation was used to increase the efficiency of a wide range of processes, including hydrogenation, ring opening in polycyclic compounds, dehydrogenation, СО2 hydrogenation to produce СО and other valuable products, partial and full oxidation alkanes.
  • Using several examples of producing nanoparticles, we have demonstrated the advantages of microwave-activated catalysts as well as the advantages of microwave activation of catalytic processes in-situ for a wide range of processes in comparison with thermally-activated catalytic processes.
  • We have determined the nonthermal effects of significant increase of the activity of the processes of hydration determined under the influence of microwave radiation in the presence of hydrogen by the dissipative absorption of hydrogen.

The achieved results comply with world standards, while some of the results exceed this level (the use of the hydrogen spillover effect, nonthermal effects of microwave activation in catalytic processes with the participation of hydrogen, the use of microwave activation in a number processes in which these effects have never been studied – ring opening, conversion of СО2 to methanol).

Implementation of research results:

We have developed efficient and cheap Zn-Cu-K catalysts for converiting СО2 to methanol that is superior to the systems known in the practice and literature in terms of performance (by a factor of 1,5-2). Pilot testing of catalysts is currently being performed with the participation of JSC «Taneko» (Russia). A substantiation of the technological and economic feasibility of their production and application will be provided later.

Education and retraining of personnel:

  • In 2021, two employees of the Laboratory completed interbships at the leading scientist Tapio Salmi’s main place of work, Åbo Akademi (Finland).
  • Two Candidate of Sciences dissertations have been prepared and defended.
  • Employees of the Laboratory presented keynotes at the one-day school and seminar «Application of microwave radiation in chemical processes» (31 October 2022, the N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences).


  • Nova Chemicals (Canada): as part of a contract, we have developed efficient and selective catalysts of partial oxidation (oxidation dehydrogenation) of ethane to ethylene.
  • «Russian aluminum management» (Russia): as part of an agreement, we have developed a technology for detoxifying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo(a)pyrene.
  • PJSC «Tatneft» (Russia): agreement «Development of a combined process of butane aromatization and СО2 hydrogenation while producing methanolс».
  • Boreskov Institute of Catalysis of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia): agreement «Development and modernization of an amine system for CO2 capture from technological gases».

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anastasiya shesterkina, kseniia vikanova, egor kostyukhin, anna strekalova, elena shuvalova, gennady kapustin, tapio salmi
Microwave Synthesis of Copper Phyllosilicates as Effective Catalysts for Hydrogenation of C≡C Bonds. Molecules 2022, 27, 988. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27030988. Q2
evdokimenko, n.d.; kapustin, g.i.; tkachenko, o.p.; kalmykov, k.b.; kustov, a.l.
Zn Doping Effect on the Performance of Fe-Based Catalysts for the Hydrogenation of CO2 to Light Hydrocarbons. Molecules 2022, 27, 1065. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27031065. Q2
saifutdinov, b.r.; isaeva, v.i.; chernyshev, v.v.; vergun, v.v.; kapustin, g.i.; ivanova, y.p.; ilyin, m.m.; tkachenko, o.p.; buryak, a.k.; kustov, l.m.
Understanding the Working Mechanism of the Novel HKUST-1@BPS Composite Materials as Stationary Phases for Liquid Chromatography. Polymers 2022, 14, 1373. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14071373. Q1
anna strekalova, anastasiya shesterkina, kustov, l.m.
Recent progress in hydrogenation of esters on heterogeneous bimetallic catalysts. Catal. Sci. Technol., 2021, 11, 7229-7238. Q2
boris g. ershov, nadezhda m. panich, gennadii l. bykov, alexander l. kustov, vladimir g. krasovskiy leonid m. kustov
Ozonation of Decalin as a Model Saturated Cyclic Molecule: A Spectroscopic Study. Molecules, 2021, 26, 5565 https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185565. Q2
marina a. tedeeva, alexander l. kustov, petr v. pribytkov, gennady i. kapustin, alexander v. leonov, olga p. tkachenko, obid b. tursunov, nikolay d. evdokimenko, leonid m. kustov
Dehydrogenation of propane in the presence of CO2 on GaOx/SiO2 catalyst:Influence of the texture characteristics of the support. Fuel, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122698. Q1
junkuo gao, vera isaeva, leonid kustov
Bimetal-Organic Framework-Derived Nanotube@Cellulose Aerogels for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation, Carbohydrate Polymers, 296, 2022, 119969, Q1.
v. i. isaeva, m. n.timofeeva, i. a.lukoyanov, e.yu.gerasimov, v.n. panchenko, v.v.chernyshev, l. m. glukhov, l. m. kustov
Novel MOF catalysts based on calix[4]arene for the synthesis of propylene carbonate from propylene oxide and CO2, Journal of CO2 Utilization, 66 (2022) 102262, 10.1016/j.jcou.2022.102262 Q1
artem a. medvedev, daria a. beldova, konstantin b. kalmykov, alexey v. kravtsov, marina a. tedeeva, leonid m. kustov, sergey f. dunaev, alexander l. kustov
Carbon Dioxide Assisted Conversion of Hydrolysis Lignin Catalyzed by Nickel Compounds, Energies 2022, 15, 6774. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15186774 Q2
olga lebedeva, dmitry kultin, alexandre zakharov, leonid кustov
Advances in application of ionic liquids: fabrication of surface nanoscale oxide structures by anodization of metals and alloys, Surfaces and Interfaces 34 (2022) 102345, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfin.2022.102345 Q1
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